The everyday godfather

Norman, D. (2002) The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Basic Books. With illustrative stories in every chapter, any attempt to derive simple rules from this classic diminishes its richness. However, in the interest of summary, the lessons that seem most prominent include: Declarative knowledge (know of) is in the world Reminders Natural mappings Procedural… Continue reading The everyday godfather


Cognition: Refined (Part II)

Winn, W. and Snyder, D. (1996). Cognitive Perspectives in Psychology. In D. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology. Washington, DC: Association for Educational Communications and Technology. pp. 112-142. Winn continues by covering different views of schema: Memory structures: built over time as a result of interaction with the environment and colored… Continue reading Cognition: Refined (Part II)


Symbolic learning & the grounding problem

Harnad, S. "The Symbol Grounding Problem." Physica D 42 (1990). 335-346. Summary In a short paper, the authors attempt to define symbolism as a cognitive science but find that the theory fails due to the symbol grounding problem: that symbols are composed only of other symbols and thus self-referential. They define 6 basic learning behaviors:… Continue reading Symbolic learning & the grounding problem


Instance-based and rule-based learning

Taatgen, Niels A. and Wallach, Dieter. "Whether Skill Acquisition is Rule or Instance Based is determined by the Structure of the Task." Cognitive Science Quarterly: 2.2 (2002). 163 -204. Summary The traditional view of skill acquisition as "a gradual transition from behavior based on declarative rules in the form of examples and instruction towards general… Continue reading Instance-based and rule-based learning


Conditions-based Theory

Ragan, Tillman J. and Smith, Patricia L. (2004) "Conditions Theory and Models for Designing Instruction." In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 623-649. The incredible value of this article is in so clearly summing up Gagnés work and relating it to other theories: learning… Continue reading Conditions-based Theory